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死刑犯:让我死得爽快舒畅点,美最高法院:禁

日期:2019-04-16 11:06 作者:佚名 阅读:
死刑犯:让我死得爽快舒畅点,美最高法院:禁绝! 窒息、吐逆、抽搐、痛不欲生想到打针死刑进程中,在存亡临界点或许阅历的这些体会,美国密苏里州的死刑犯 Russell Bucklew 觉得惶惶不可终日。  现年50岁的Russell Bucklew早在1996年就被宣判了死刑,触及的罪名包含谋杀、强奸和劫持 。    20多年前,Bucklew枪杀了他前女友Stephanie Ray其时的伴侣Michael Sanders,劫持并强奸了Ray,枪伤了Sanders6岁的儿子,并在被捕前枪伤了一名差人。  这个犯下滔天罪行的死刑犯,总算等来了他血债血偿的一天。不过,这个患有先天海绵状血管瘤 的罪犯却请求防止运用打针死刑,改用毒气死刑,理由是,他的病症导致打针死刑会添加他临死时的苦楚 。  Bucklew argued that his congenital condition, cavernous hemangioma, might cause him excessive pain if he is put to death by lethal injection.  Bucklew辩称,假设运用打针死刑的方法对他履行死刑,他的先天性海绵状血管瘤或许导致他极度苦楚。  The condition causes blood-filled tumours in his throat, neck and face, which he said could rupture during his execution causing him extreme pain and suffocation.  这种疾病在他的嗓子、颈部和脸上构成充溢血液的血管瘤,据他说,这些血管瘤或许在行刑进程中决裂,导致极度的苦楚和窒息。  According to Bucklew, he would feel excessive pain if the state executioner is allowed to use the state's preferred method of a single drug, pentobarbital, applied by needle.  据Bucklew称,假设行刑者运用密苏里州首选的针筒打针单一药物戊巴比妥,他会感到极度苦楚。  ▲US Supreme Court rules inmate has 'no right to painless death'   美国是首个选用打针死刑的国家。依据不列颠百科全书记载,打针死刑是美国最广泛选用的死刑履行方法。  Lethal injectionnow the most widely used method of execution in the United Stateswas first adopted by the U.S. state of Oklahoma in 1977, because it was considered cheaper and more humane than either electrocution or lethal gas.  打针死刑现在在美国最为广泛选用的死刑履行方法于1977年初次被俄克拉何马州选用,由于它被以为比电刑和毒气死刑更廉价、更人性化。  Texas was the first state to administer lethal injection, executing Charles Brooks, Jr., on December 2, 1982.  1982年12月2日,德克萨斯州初次选用打针死刑对小Charles Brooks履行死刑。  By the early 21st century, lethal injection was the sole method of execution in most U.S. states where capital punishment was legal, and it was an option for prisoners in all states.  到21世纪初期,大多数将死刑合法化的美国联邦州把打针死刑定为仅有的死刑履行方法。在其他一些州,打针死刑也是可选项之一。  ▲Lethal injection   虽然打针死刑的引进是出于人道的考虑,通常状况下,打针死刑的作用相似于安乐死,可也有破例 ,打针死刑不光没有减轻死刑犯的苦楚,反而加剧了他们临死前的苦楚程度。美国历史上就有不少事例。  Joseph Rudolph Wood   2014年,亚利桑那州州立监狱对死刑犯Joseph Wood履行打针死刑的进程继续了近2个小时 ,进程非常苦楚。这一事情还引起了美国打针死刑反对者的反对。        By the time Wood died, after nearly two hours, he had been injected with 750mg each of midazolam and hydromorphone: 15 times the amounts called for in the states execution protocol.  从开端行刑到Wood死去,阅历了将近两个小时。他被别离打针了750毫克的咪达唑仑和氢吗啡酮,是该州死刑履行协议规则计量的15倍。  Woods death, on 23 July, was the third highly problematic execution in the US this year, following those of Dennis McGuire in Ohio in January and Clayton Lockett in Oklahoma in April, which were also drawn-out and led to accusations that the inmates may have endured a level of distress prohibited by the US constitutions ban on cruel and unusual punishment.  2014年7月23日Wood的死,是当年美国第三大死刑履行事端。此前的两起事端是1月俄亥俄州对Dennis McGuire,和4月俄克拉何马州对Clayton Lockett履行的死刑进程都是超时的,引发了民众的责备,罪犯或许现已忍受了美国宪法所制止的必定程度的苦楚,美国宪法制止残暴和不寻常的赏罚。  ▲Arizona inmate Joseph Wood was injected 15 times with execution drugs   不过,美国最高法院判决,Bucklew无权得到无痛死刑。  But the Supreme Court's conservative justices said on Monday they considered the legal effort to be a stalling tactic.  可是当地时刻周一,最高法院保守派大法官们说,他们以为Bucklew的说辞仅仅一种拖延战术。  They said it was up to the prisoner to prove that another method of execution would "reduce a substantial risk of severe pain", but he had not done so.  他们说,一切都取决于罪犯是否可以证明别的一种行刑方法可以减轻潜在的疼痛的危险,但他并没有那么做。  ▲US Supreme Court rules inmate has 'no right to painless death'   大法官们在判决书中表明,美国宪法并没有担保死刑犯的死刑进程必定是无痛的 。  US Supreme Court: Stephen Breyer, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Samuel Alito, Jr; Neil Gorsuch, Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan and Brett Kavanaugh   "The eighth amendment [to the US constitution] forbids 'cruel and unusual' methods of capital punishment but does not guarantee a prisoner a painless death," wrote Justice Gorsuch, who was appointed by President Donald Trump in 2017.  美国总统特朗普2017年录用的Neil Gorsuch大法官在判决书中写道,美国宪法第八修正案制止残暴和非寻常的死刑履行方法,但并没有担保死刑犯的死刑进程必定是无痛的。  ▲US Supreme Court rules inmate has 'no right to painless death'   不过,自由派大法官们以为,依据Bucklew的状况,应当答应运用氮气对他履行死刑,这种方法在美国三个州都是答应的。  "There are higher values than ensuring that executions run on time," wrote Justice Sonia Sotomayor in a separate opinion, adding that secrecy in the death penalty process has recently yielded different results in two similar cases.  Sonia Sotomayor大法官在一份独自的定见书中写道:比准时行刑有着更重要的价值。她弥补说,死刑的私密性问题在两桩相似的案子中产生了不同的成果。  ▲US Supreme Court rules inmate has 'no right to painless death'   Sotomayor大法官所指的这两个案子是,阿拉巴马州的一名穆斯林男人被制止在他死刑进程中由伊玛目为他祷告,而在另一个相似的案子中,一个佛教徒在他的死刑进程中,请求他的精力导师可以在场,而被法院判决暂停对他履行。  而Gorsuch大法官说到这两个案子时表明,阿拉巴马州的那名名叫Dominique Ray的监犯在行刑前有着富余的时刻提出请求,但Ray却挑选在他刑期到来前15天才提出请求。  你觉得罪犯的要求合理吗?欢迎留言共享你的观念!  整合:Du Qiongfang  整合:BBC, The Guardian, britannica.com  图/题图:Missouri Department of Corrections, Getty Images, AP, 网络